Chronic Pain


Understanding pain (5 min video)

There is no pain without the brain: Understanding the basics of pain (article)

Gate Control Theory of Pain (3 min video: go to "projects" on right-hand side, then "what is pain")

Gate Control Theory of Pain (short article): Center for Integrated Health Care

Opening and Closing the Pain Gates: Veritas Health

The role of psychology in pain: Stanford (video)

CBT for chronic pain (APA) 

For parents: Getting kids in pain to school (article)

For parents: Helping kids with pain get out of bed (article)

Psychological interventions for chronic pain (Journal of Psych Research and Behavior Management)

Eleven pain control techniques (article) 

Distraction techniques for pain (Journal: PAIN - see picture at bottom of page)

Mindfulness, distraction effective for pediatric pain (Int Assoc for the Study of Pain)

Mood & attention regulate the experience of pain (NPR)

Thoughts Shape Pain (Neuro Journal)

Pain catastrophizing: Negative mood states and negative thoughts affect pain (Journal: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics)

The impact of mood on pain: Laughter as Medicine  (Scientific American)

GI distress: How your brain can affect your stomach (article) 

Brain-Body Connection: Somatization

Mindfulness for managing chronic pain (PsychCentral)

Mind-Body approach to pain (Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, UCSF)

"Alternatives to drugs for treating pain" (NY Times)


The funniest ever version of the pain scale, in case you need to laugh.



Migraines & Headaches


Understanding Pain (5 min video)

Gate Control Theory of Pain (3 min video: go to "projects" on right-hand side, then "what is pain")

Headache relief guide: Strategies for coping with pain (Children's Mercy Hospital)

CBT helps pediatric migraines (JAMA)

Screen time is associated with increased risk of migraines in children (International Headache Society)

Behavioral treatment for migraines in children and adolescents 

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Plus Amitriptyline for Chronic Migraine in Children and Adolescents (JAMA)

Exercise helps migraines & headaches (American Migraine Foundation)

Migraine Guide (American Chronic Pain Assoc)

Relaxation techniques effective for headaches and migraine (National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health)

Should my child go to school with pain? (Boston Children's Hospital)



Central Sensitization  / CRPS / Amplified pain

(also see Chronic Pain, above)


Pain itself can change how pain works: Central sensitization

Central Sensitization: Brains become more sensitive to pain after prolonged exposure to it

How CBT can de-sensitize and re-train your brain: neuroplasticity video

 Amplified pain, CRPS & CBT (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia)

 CBT can help treat Central Sensitization in people struggling with pain

Pediatric CRPS: background, treatment options and CBT





Gate Control Theory of Pain (3 min video: go to "projects" on right-hand side, then "what is pain")

Pain, stress, and fibromyalgia (article)

Central sensitization and fibromyalgia (article)

CBT for pediatric fibromyalgia and chronic pain (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia)



Anxiety and Stress


Relationship between chronic pain and anxiety: Institute for Chronic Pain

Anxiety and catastrophizing mediate the effect of pain in teens (journal article)

Physical Effects of Stress on the body (APA)

Time management tips for stress management

Anxiety and stress negatively affect pain: 50 signs and symptoms of stress

Anxiety in Children (AACAP)

School Refusal (ADAA)

Try CBT before meds for insomnia (article)

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Anxiety: 

Child Mind Institute

Mayo Clinic 




Symptoms of depression in kids and teens (Mayo Clinic)

Serotonin & endorphins: increase "happy hormones" to improve mood

Chronic pain, depression & anxiety in adolescents

Exercise, nature & being social  can improve mood and self-esteem

CBT for depression in kids and teens (Society of Child & Adolescent Clinical Psych)

Laughter & depression: Harvard Neuroscience Institute

Effects of laughter on the brain: Livestrong

Self-injury: Why do teens cut? (Mayo Clinic)





Biofeedback and Relaxation: definition

Biofeedback for headaches

Efficacy of biofeedback for headaches (journal article)

Four apps to relieve tension 

Underpinnings of biofeedback: The Skin You're In (Dr. Erik Peper)

HOW TO FIND a Biofeedback Provider





Sleep hygiene: 5 tips for sleeping well, with or without pain! (Tonya Palermo)

Why screens before bed disrupt kids' sleep cycles: Melatonin suppression (Scientific American)

SEE Guided Audio, below.



Audio for Relaxation & Pain


Relaxation Audio: Guided Meditations, UCLA


Relaxation Audio: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; under "Practices" on the left)


Relaxation Audio: Palermo, Seattle Children's Hospital (middle of the page)


Relaxation Audio: Dawn Buse


Relaxation audio + video: American Chronic Pain Association


App for phones: Stop Breathe Think (Apple & Android)

                                 Rain Rain - great for relaxation, sleep

                                 A variety of pain trackers and apps





** Dr. Zoffness is not responsible for the content, claims

or representations of the listed sites. **